EDIP YŮKSEL (1957 – )
Kurdish Turkish-American Edip Yüksel (1957 – ) (also spelled Edip Yuksel) created in 2007 a controversial (Quranist) progressive translation of the Quran titled “Quran a Reformist Translation”.
Edip Yüksel sees himself as a reformer similar to how Martin Luther had founded the Protestant Reformation in 1517 with his 95 theses at the Roman Catholic church in Wittenberg. Like Martin Luther, he urges his followers to read the holy book themselves, rather than believing what the religious authorities tell them.
In Edip Yüksel’s footnote to Quran verse 4:82, he states that the hadiths have many errors, but that the Quran has no errors of science and was centuries ahead of its time.
The major publisher Palgrave Macmillan announced in 2006 it was publishing the book, but a few months later dropped the book after a Sunni scholar advised them that a fatwa was likely to be issued against Yüksel’s translation.
Available used from Amazon and on the internet as a pdf file.
Yuksel also wrote “Manifesto For Islamic Reform”.
NURI AND HOQUE
The 1964, “The Running Commentary of the Holy Qur-an” Khadim Rahmani Nuri (author) and Zohurul Hoque (editor) was published in Pakistan. Its interpretations were not copied by other translators and do not appear on Muslim websites. But it was perhaps the first interpretation to find numerous revelations of science in the Quran, but not the same revelations that appear on Muslim websites today.
For example, they translated Quran verse 55:33 not as merely saying people and jinn cannot get into heaven unless Allah permits them to enter, but as predicting the early space missions of the United States and the Soviet Union.
RASHAD KHALIFA (1935 – 1990)
Rashad Khalifa was an Egyptian-American Muslim biochemist who in 1981 did a Quranist translation of the Quran, which means he did not examine the hadiths to help him determine the meaning of Quran verses, but instead translated Quran verses so that they would not contradict facts of science. He was the first to claim the Quran says the Earth is shaped like an ostrich egg.
He was the first to interpret Quran verse 67:5 about meteoroids being thrown at jinn climbing into heaven to not claim that the lamps of the lower heaven were the same objects as the projectiles thrown at the jinn. In other words, he was the first translator to not say that “shooting stars” are stars.
38 Saudi scholars objected to Khalifa’s translation of some verses, and issued a fatwa declaring him to be a heretic. He was assassinated by one of his Quran students, but many recent translations of the Quran now repeat some of Khalifa’s interpretations, including Khalifa’s controversial claim that the Quran says the Earth is shaped like an ostrich egg.
Harun Yahya (1956 – )
(his real name is Adnan Oktar) is a Turkish author who opposes Darwin’s theory of evolution and obtained his evidence against Darwin from the Institute For Creation Research (a fundamentalist Christian organization) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_for_Creation_Researc
except Harun Yahya does not promote the fundamentalist Christian belief that the world is less than seven thousand years old.
Harun Yahya wrote a series of books “The Atlas of Creation”, in which he claims that no changes have happened since God created animals hundreds of millions of years ago. His books have beautiful photographs of seashells and of insects trapped in amber that have not changed much in millions of years. Scientists claim Harun Yahya has no understanding of biology. Harun Yahya claims scientists are atheist liars who follow Karl Marks [sic]. Harun Yahya makes many errors, such as falsely identifying an ancient fossil of a reptile as being identical to an eel, which is not a reptile but a fish.
Harun Yahya writes about Quran mathematical miracles.
SURFACE MEANING AND DEEPER MEANINGS
According to Pakistani nuclear physicist and writer Pervez Hoodbhoy, the 9th century scientist and philosopher al-Kindi wrote that if a Quran verse contradicts reality, then the verse has a literal surface meaning and a deeper meaning.
Verse 22:18 literally says “everyone (and everything) in the heavens and on the earth falls prostrate before Allah: the sun and the moon, the stars and the mountains, the trees …”. Al-Kindi wrote that the Arabic word yasjudu should instead be interpreted as “obeying the laws of nature”.
Hoodbhoy wrote that when a Sunni caliph, less receptive to science, came to power, al-Kindi was publicly flogged and his library was confiscated.
(Seyyed) Hossein Nasr (1933 – ) is an Iranian-American who opposes modern science, claiming modern science uses only reason, and modern science rejects revelation.
Medieval science, he says, was different because it was used to prove that revealed knowledge was true. He advocates a new Islamic science based on intellect of the heart instead of intellect of the mind, but is unclear about the details.
Other Muslims, often Muslims who know very little about science, have written books advocating Islamic science, with Ziauddin Sardar (1951 – ) accusing the other writers of wanting to change Islam instead of changing science.
THE QURAN INSTRUCTS US TO SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE
Dr. Rana Dajani teaches her female students in Jordan that the Quran instructs people to search for knowledge. Therefore, if a man gives a Quran interpretation that disagrees with the facts of science, women should use their brains to reinterpret the verse to agree with science. Some verses are parables that should not be taken literally. She says that the Quran teaches us to be humble. Therefore it is against the teachings of the Quran to reject the scientific fact that man and chimpanzees evolved from a common ancestor. The entire video is fascinating, including the question and answer session. http://youtu.be/etP_YJ5jWsY
See https://wordpress.com/post/islamic-science.blog/199 for Zakir Naik.
Image by Jim Harris / Eighthprime, via Wikimedia Commons.
Image credit https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edip_Yuksel_2015-3-28_Tucson-7.jpg#mw-jump-to-licenseb