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wave at sea
The sea captain Ahmad Ibn Mājid (1421 – ?) wrote about the typhoon that arrives on approximately the 40th day of the year, which “cuts up the clouds as if they were cow skins”. He wrote about lightning, whirlpools, and the water being warm.
In the year 1511, the Indian Ocean sea captain Sulaymān al-Mahrī wrote the obvious fact that during the monsoon season of late summer, it often begins to rain in the afternoon.
Sulaiman Al Mahri (1480 – 1550) wrote that approaching typhoons increase the amount of dust in the air, and bring lightning. “The sky has clouds like cow skins; and on top of those cumulating clouds”.
Muslims have kept records for over a thousand years of the height of the Nile RiverNS at flood season. This data has been used by modern non-Muslim scientists studying climate change.
Some Muslims believed that weather was caused by which lunar mansion of the year it was.
Al-Isfizārī (1050 – 1110) wrote about the meteorology of Aristotle.
Al-Khwarizmi’s (780 – 850) division of the Earth into 7 climes [climate zones] was copied from Ptolemy.
DARK CLOUDS BRING RAIN
Ibn Duraid Al-Azdi (837 – 933) wrote that light rain merely made the ground wet but heavy rain made streams flow and created swamps.
His weather forecasting method was that black clouds moving like fully loaded camels climbing a sand dune indicated it would rain but puffy clouds like a man whose waist has grown large was an indication it would not rain.
RISING HOT AIR CAUSES WINDS
Al-Kindi (801-873), living in Baghdad, was the first to write that winds are caused by the sun heating air, causing the air to rise. This is quite different from Theophrastus (371 BC – 287 BC), who wrote that the sun attracts air upward, and that wind was caused by the sun evaporating water. [But the Romans had created winds (by building small fires inside mostly wooden chimneys) to ventilate tunnels and mines.]
Al-Nayrizi (865–922) was a Persian who wrote the book “On Atmospheric Phenomena”.
MOON MOVING THROUGH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE HEATS THE TROPICS
Al-Bīrūnī (973 – 1048) incorrectly thought that the air extended all the way to the Moon, and that the friction of the Moon traveling through the air heats up the air. Since the Moon is closer to the equator than to the poles, he incorrectly wrote that this explains why air is warmer at the equator than hichat the poles.
Image by johnny_automatic, via openclipart
Image credit https://openclipart.org/detail/3166/crashing-wave