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removing a portion of the skull to relieve pressure from a swelling brain
Avicenna (Ibn-Sīnā) diagnosed meningitis (swelling of the membrane surrounding the brain or spinal cord) in the 11th century. His successful treatment was a
Craniectomy operation which removed part of the skull to give a swelling brain room to expand.
He was not the first to perform this operation, which had been explained by Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.).
The operation is also called trepanation or trepanning.
Image by Wellcome Library, London, via Wikimedia Commons.