857px-Nagasakibombatomic bomb blast

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In 1975 Abdul Qadeer Khan (1936 – ) (educated in the Netherlands) stole gas centrifuge uranium enrichment blueprints and technologies from URENCO in the Netherlands where he worked as a metallurgical engineer.

Another contributor to Pakistan’s nuclear bomb program was Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood (1940 – ), who earned a double master of science degree in control system engineering and nuclear engineering from the University of Manchester, and read reports of the American project of building an atomic bomb in the 1940’s. He provided Osama bin Laden with information about how to make nuclear weapons.
The “father” of Pakistan’s program to build a nuclear weapon was Munir Ahmad Khan (1926 – 1999) who earned, in the United States, a master of science degree in nuclear engineering.

Samar Mubarakmand (1942 – ) , who did research in gamma spectroscopy and linear accelerators and earned a PhD in experimental nuclear physics at Oxford University, helped Pakistan to build and test its nuclear weapons and to build missiles. He also developed Pakistan’s linear accelerator.

Riazuddin (1930 – 2013) (who studied theoretical physics at Cambridge University) was another scientist who helped Pakistan to build its nuclear weapons.

The initial Pakistani nuclear bombs tested in 1998 were crude devices with about half the yield of the 2 nuclear bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.
China supplied Pakistan with nuclear materials such as heavy water and centrifuge components, and critical assistance in building nuclear facilities. China also provided Pakistan with the design of a more advanced warhead.

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (1931 – 2015) earned a bachelor’s degree in aerospace engineering in India. As an engineer and project director, he played a major role in India’s development of ballistic missiles. He also was involved in the 1998 improvement and tests of a primitive nuclear bomb with a yield about double the yield of the bomb dropped in 1945 on Hiroshima.
Later he became president of India.

Sameera Moussa (1917 – 1952) obtained a PhD in atomic radiation from a university in Egypt, where she researched the effects of X-rays on various materials. She made a ridiculous claim that she calculated that an inexpensive nuclear bomb could be made by using copper instead of uranium. She did not invent any medical devices. She talked about the need to protect people from radiation hazards. She invited famous nuclear physicists to her conference about the need to use atoms for peaceful purposes. Americans gave her a guided tour of a facility involved in America’s nuclear weapons program.

Albert Einstein did not convert to being a Shiite Muslim.   Sometimes rumors like this spread when a book is translated into Arabic or Farsi and God is translated as Allah.

Ali Moustafa Mosharafa (1898 – 1950) while earning a PhD and an ScD from King’s College in London, wrote letters to Albert Einstein and published peer-reviewed journal articles about quantum theory and the theory of relativity. He later became a professor of applied mathematics in Egypt.

Mahmoud Hessaby (1903 – 1992) was an Iranian who studied physics at the University of Paris and wrote 4 peer-reviewed articles in American and French scientific journals. One of the articles (“Theoretical Evidence for the Existence of a Light-Charged Particle of Mass Greater than That of the Electron”), written in 1948 while he was at the Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago, was cited once by another researcher.
He founded Tehran University and the Atomic Energy Center of Iran.

Mohammed Abdus Salam (1926 – 1996) (an Ahmadi) shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics for his 1960s contributions (while at Imperial College in London England) to electroweak unification theory. He fled Pakistan in 1974 after the Pakistani parliament (pressured by the king of Saudi Arabia) declared that Ahmadis are heretics, not Muslims.
In 1998 Pakistan issued a postage stamp honoring him for his role in Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program.

Kerim Kerimov (1917 – 2003) was not a Muslim. He was an Azerbaijani rocket engineer chosen to be head of Space Forces in the USSR Ministry of Defense. For security reasons, such jobs are always held by atheists or perhaps Christians.

image by Charles Levy,  United States Army, via Wikimedia Commons.
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